Ive here. This article does not draw conclusions, but discusses a problem. It’s worth pondering what “classic” means in many fields and how it has changed over time. But Rosser calls the opposition a revolution, when I consider some of the shifts from the classics to be gradual.
By: Buckley Rother, professor of economics at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia.Originally Posted in voice of the economy
To those branches of the Orthodox Church that still use the Julian calendar, such as the Russian branch, Merry Christmas! I’d love to comment on the situation in Kazakhstan, but I don’t think we know what’s going on there yet, so don’t know right now.
Instead, somehow, I’ve been thinking about something related to economics, but I’m going to study it in other areas, namely the relationship between classicism and revolution. It’s complicated because in economics we think of “classical economics” as something outdated, Adam Smith’s economics, while a bit simple, is also very traditional. But we usually think of Karl Marx as a classical economist, but he was also a revolutionary. However, modern neoclassical economists use this “classical” label to refute him as outdated, although they retain Adam Smith’s ideas to a certain extent.
Anyway, I’d like to see how the term is used in other disciplines, where it comes from, and how this strange relationship works. If you look closely at the origin of the word, it comes from French, “classique”, which is related to “class”. In earlier French, classique belonged to a somewhat higher rank and thus was probably of high quality. However, since at least English in the 1620s, the term has also come to apply to things derived from or inspired by Greek and Roman civilizations. Much of the discussion in English at the time applied to literature, especially poetry.
The earliest attempts to revive the Greek and Roman models were probably in the field of architecture, and occurred shortly after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. This is in the realm of architecture, which started after Charlemagne founded the Holy Roman Empire in AD 800, which really made a conscious attempt to revive the Roman Empire and its models. For the next 200 years, architecture known as the Carolingian style dominated northwestern Europe, especially in Germany and France, consciously imitating late imperial styles such as those found in Ravenna. A typical example is the cathedral in Aachen, Germany, where Charlemagne was buried. It will be replaced by the Romanesque style.
The Renaissance would see another round of this in architecture. This was inspired by the discovery of the writings of the great Roman architect Vitruvius, whose ideas became the basis for much of the architecture of that period.
Because I see the dynamic between classicism and revolution in music, which has nothing to do with Greek or Roman thought, as is the case with economics. So the so-called “classical music” is a very broad thing, not pop, rock, jazz, country, etc. music. The lines between them have sometimes blurred in recent decades, but we still generally know what falls into what category. Even in the past when classical music was very clearly identified, classical composers often drew inspiration from folk music or tunes for their compositions. But this is not the key issue.
Within classical music itself there is a subset called the “classical school” or period. This is the style most notably associated with Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Mozart, who mainly composed in the late 18th century, Haydn actually lasted until 1809, and Mozart died untimely in 1791. This style and period follows the Baroque period, the most famous members of which were JS Bach and Handel, although it originated in Italy, of which Arcangelo Corelli and Antonio Vivaldi were also major members. The classical school would follow the Romantic school led by Haydn’s pupil Beethoven, who started with the classical style but moved on, which dominated almost the entire 19th century.
As such, Beethoven is seen as a revolutionary who modified and liberated music from the formal school dominated by the rules that preceded him. In fact, not only the Romantics, the “modern” classical music of the twentieth century and beyond has gone further, breaking with more and more rules and structures followed by Haydn and Mozart, in symphonies and concertos key, certain In a number of movements, especially in the movement using the Allegro form of the Sonata, there are two themes and variations. It almost became Freud, Haydn was known as “Papa Haydn” and all these later classical composers would increasingly rebel against him, moving towards polytonal and atonal forms.
But we have another fact: in creating the classical school, Haydn and Mozart were themselves revolutionaries who created new forms. Some of these are actual types of works or groups of instruments, such as string quartets. Of course, Mozart was a star all his life, a prodigy who played for royalty from the age of 5. But it is well known that Haydn spent most of his career in obscurity at the Esterhazy estate in Hungary, working hard on his creations. He was actually only really discovered later in his life, ironically Mozart helped him when he was finally able to get to Vienna in the 1780s, and his real triumph came in the 1790s, when he spent some time in London , on the verge of Beethoven beginning to destroy the structures he and Mozart had built.
Ironically, the most revolutionary core of the classical school may have come from someone else, a man who was famous and successful in his time, but who, if not completely forgotten, would be remembered for his largely unknown role. was pushed down. This is what Haydn and Mozart called “Papa Bach,” who actually invented the allegro form of the sonata. No, this is not the great Baroque composer JS Bach, but his most important son, Karl Phillip Emmanuel Bach. He was a true revolutionary who founded the classical school, and both Haydn and Mozart brought him down. But he will be forgotten because he was replaced by Haydn and Mozart, and after Mendelssohn revived his father JS Bach in the 19th century, somehow between his father and his followers, the real revolutionary who created the school of classical music has been largely forgotten.